The functioning and the connections of a stepper motor are simple concepts deeply.
There are different types of stepper motors. In 3D printing the most used are "Hybrid Stepper Motor", with two phases and 4 connections; which combines the features of "Variable Reluctance Motor" and "Permanent Magnetizing Motor"
In this video we can see the types os stepper motors, as so as its functioning:
As we have seen, the stepper motor has two phases with two connections per phase: four connections in total. We can see them at the diagram:
Which position must have each the connection?
We must connect according to the indicated on RAMPS board: 2211, although 1122 will work also.
How can I identidy the phases?
Each phase has continuity, so with a multimeter we can measure the continuity in the motor connection. Every connector has continuity with the other connector that corresponds with its phase and not with the others.
What happens if I cross the phases of the motor?
The motor will vibrate, but it won't move. The advantage is that this kind of mistake doesn't damage the electronic and it is easey to identify.
What happens if I change the orientation of any phase?
The stepper motor will move in the opposite direction.
How can I change the spinning orientation?
The easiest way to do it is to connect it the other way round. You can do it from the firmware also.
How can I make the motor get less warmed?
You can decrease the current intensity and thus, the motor power.
The motor hasn't enough power and my printer misses steps, what can I do?
In Prusa 3D printers, the intensity is usually adjusted between 0,2 A and 0,4 per motor; being possible to lift this value to the nominal power of the motor. One of the options is increasing the current assigned to the motor. Also you can modify the acceleration and/or checking that mechanically everything is right.
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